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The Latin word they used is flagrum. Flagellum is the English derivative. I have only referred to my reproductions as a Roman cat of nine tails in the title because that is the ONLY way most folks know to search for a Roman flagrum!

Since I have been making my living all of my adult life creating a variety of realistic reproductions, I initially thought it would be fairly easy to replicate a demonstrable Roman flagrum. I would either find a real one in a museum or see some good pictures of a real flagrum, and duplicate it. Boy, was I wrong! Whoever first said "talk is cheap" had it right! Anybody can talk -- making a whip that can do all the damage the historical accounts tell us is the hard part.

I quickly learned the biggest problem in replicating an accurate Roman whip is that archeologists have NEVER found one! Being the skeptic that I am, I did not believe the archeologist who first explained to me why it is unlikely that a genuine Roman whip will ever be found. After years of searching, I have yet to find one and have to admit he knew what he was talking about. The primary reason seems to boil down to the fact that nothing on the whip could survive years because of the natural deterioration process except maybe a little lead or glass.

None of the historical accounts tell us specific design secrets that any Roman soldier would have learned in "Roman Torture ". I have been unable to find any specific measurements in regards to the exact lengths of the leather straps, how many nails, or how much glass or bone were embedded in each lead tips. When I say inaccurate, I hope that fact does not come as a surprise to you! Artists are not usually historians! There is only one vague reference in the entire Bible to women with wings.

It is very hypocritical to build a doctrine on one vague verse "out of the mouth of two or three witnesses let every word be established" when there are hundreds of verses where angels are referred to in the masculine tense of both Hebrew and Greek.

I guess it just goes to show you, Jesus of Nazareth certainly knew what he was talking about when he said, "the traditions of men make what God says of NO effect". I catch a lot more flak for pointing out the sissy angel myths, than the Roman whip myths. Through the process I discovered which theories work well when put to a test and which theoretical whip ideas are complete failures. The process many sound simple, but it was very time consuming and there was nothing easy about it.

I wish I did not have to tell you ALL of the Roman flagrum reproductions, drawings and movie props I researched, turned out to be pitiful failures when duplicated and put to a simple test on a cardboard box!

I know hundreds of ways NOT to build a Roman flagrum. My failures eventually started paying off as I discovered a few ideas that did work and after about four years I finally started to make some fair whip reproductions. Since that time I have been marketing these reproductions to primarily pastors and teachers, historians, theologians, archeologists, university professors, Christian authors, Catholic priests, museum curators and many lay ministers.

I have learned that ALL of the "experts" generally agree on the following facts: All Roman scourging whips had either glass, nails or jagged sheep bone embedded in various size lead tips the cutting tips need to be embedded into at least acorn size lead tips in order to do the kind of damage described in the historical record.

If my reproductions lack authenticity, it is because I use only a minimum of nails, glass or sheep bone in each lead tip. The minimum is shocking enough. A Roman flagrum had from as few as 3, to as many as 12 leather straps. Dakes Annotated Reference Bible Matt. It must be remembered the Roman Empire was the dominant world power for around to years! Pick the one you think it was. The twelve strap is more fearsome looking, but the three strap can do just as much damage because it is a lighter whip and you end up swinging much faster and the cuts are deeper and longer.

The one thing the 3 - 12 strap variations had in common was the lead tips embedded with nails, bone or glass. The size of the lead tips seems to vary as well as shapes of lead tips.

In my experimenting, I have designed 12 strap whips that can rip up to 90 - small holes per lash using many more small nails embedded in each lead tip. The most popular nine strap reproductions can easily rip holes per lash on 6 ml plastic.

The three strap can easily rip holes per lash. A good reproduction should NOT destroy its glass and bone tips in a simulated test. Only an amateur would make a laughable whip like that. I have swung my 9-strap design over times in a row on a cardboard box without breaking any glass or bone. Each strap must be variegated different lengths and held in place by the horizontal strap in the exact way you see in the picture. If not, all you will get is a tangled up mess that destroys itself with every lash.

Did you know fresh blood is very slick? If you have ever butchered wild game or livestock you already know that. Can you imagine an expert Roman Lictor having to stop between each lash to untangle his blood soaked whip all the while trying not to cut his own fingers on the slippery, hidden glass tips? All of my reproductions are inches in length the length of the wooden handle may vary slightly. My reproductions are so primitive, that any Roman solider who had some lead, some cow hide, and a stick could easily make a killer whip in a matter of hours.

Details of the most well-known scourgings come from the very accurate Biblical accounts of Jesus Christ and the Apostle Paul. They provide a number of very specific details confirming the accuracy of the ancient secular accounts.

Let me give you just a few examples. The more facts one learns about Roman scourging, the more easily it is to see that Jesus was not exaggerating when he predicted his blood would be POURED out! Deep stripe like lacerations were usually associated with considerable blood loss.

A Roman scourging was considered a long and slow death penalty from which only the gods could save the victim from. The victim usually died in days from blood loss and infection. Look closely at the picture of the 6 ml construction plastic with just one lash on it.

Sometimes a picture is NOT worth words but I hope it helps you get a better grasp of why the scourged victims would quickly tell the Romans anything they wanted to hear. A Roman flagrum has been mistakenly referred to as a Cat o Nine Tails for so long, it is a surprise to most Pastors that a British cat o nine tails will NOT cut through 6 ml plastic no matter how many times you hit it!

If you doubt me, buy one and try it! Scourging would so weaken the condemned that his time on the cross would be shortened, possibly an unintentional mercy. Readers Digest - Jesus and His Times pg. A short whip made it possible to be very accurate and direct the cutting tips to only the rib cage.

The chest wound in the crucified Christ. If you doubt that a Roman flagrum was a short whip, read Davis CT: The crucifixion of Jesus: The passion of Christ from a medical point of view. They would alternate lashes and direct each lash to the specific part of the back, buttocks or thigh they chose.

A Shorter flagrum helped to prevent premature death from accidentally cutting a neck vein, major arteries, or disemboweling the condemned. If you have ever seen a movie of someone being flogged by a short handled cat O nine tails type whip they always use ONE hand usually their right because most people are right handed.

You notice they swing the whip about as hard as they can right? Now imagine a typical right handed lictor on the other side trying to swing the same kind of whip with his left hand! It will not work! The Romans would have to have a left handed guy on duty all the time in order to do a scourging the way they usually did it!

This problem is easily solved if you make the whip handle longer so it can be swung like a baseball bat. My reproductions are held with both hands, they can be swung right handed or left handed. Any 12 year old girl could swing one hard enough to do ALL the damage the historical accounts tell us. I am not exaggerating. I hope you can believe it when I tell you the holes in the plastic look more like a swipe from a grizzly bear than a domestic cat. I said that because most contemporary Christians don.

British Navy cat o nine tails have NO metal or bone cutting tips. British accounts tell us that some criminals took over lashes all over their bodies from a Cat O Nine Tails and still survived perhaps the usual bucket of salt water they threw on them after the flogging helped to disinfect the wounds. If you are skeptical about what I just told you, why not check out a real Cat O nine tails at a British Navy museum?

British whips were used for punishment and were not considered a death penalty. A cat o nine tails was made of leather or rope.

It usually had one to three knots tied at the tips of the nine straps. Law breaking pirates were the only ones known to add SMALL bits of metal or bone to their cat o nine tails. I challenge any of you skeptics who have mistakenly referred to a Roman Flagrum as a British Cat of nine tails to buy a real cat of nine tails and add the acorn size lead tips embedded with glass, nails and bone.

Try your theories out before you disregard my designs that really work. When all you end up with is a pitiful, tangled up mess that pulverizes the glass and bone with every lash -- I hope you will at least stop passing on myths, false information, half-truths. Roman scourging whips were designed to extract information and confessions. If the Romans were not convinced that they were getting the truth, the victim would surely die a slow, painful, horrific death.

As I stated earlier, scourging was a common way of finding out the whole truth. The well-known mocking, punching, the beating with rods and then scourging were ordinary torture techniques the Roman soldiers used to try to get Jesus to change his story to something they might believe.

The soldiers probably were extra brutal with Jesus and thus the robe and crown of thorns because he would not change his story to something they might believe.

Jesus never backed down on ANY of his claims, not even under the worst tortures Roman "expert" could inflict. In fact AFTER his scourging, he surprised Pilate again by letting him know "You would have no authority over me if it had not been given to you by my Father in heaven"! After Pilate had Jesus scourged he knew for sure Jesus was not guilty of any crime, so he tried once again to out maneuver the Jewish leaders who wanted him to kill Jesus by making an appeal to the crowd.

Appealing to the crowd was a common practice at the weekly Roman gladiator games. Pilate was well aware of crowd justice. Even though some of my reproductions are displayed in museums, that is not the intended purpose. Most of the whips I have sold go to pastors, teachers and lay ministers who use them to help others get a better grasp of the great price "the King of the Jews" was willing to pay for our sins, mistakes, weaknesses, sicknesses, and diseases read Matthew 8: They are shocked to put it mildly - and begin to inquire about the facts!

After seeing the positive impact these reproductions make, some pastors will even do a simple demonstration. It is vitally important to start the demonstration by reminding women that Jesus told the crowds of women who actually saw him after he was scourged NOT to weep for him! Remind them that Jesus asked his followers to remember his body broken for them! His blood poured out for them! He did the hard part; all he asked us to do was understand what he did!!!

There are great benefits available to those who understand the death of Christ. If you really want to catch glimpses of. If most women and teenagers can watch Mel Gibson oops, William Wallis die bravely in the movie Braveheart, why should they object to watching what a few lashes from a Roman whip can do to a cardboard box?

The hours of torture Jesus went through make Braveheart look like a sissy in comparison! Fill the box with beans, rice, wheat or whatever you have on hand.

Set the box on a table about three feet high. Demonstrate what one lash can do to a piece of 6 ml plastic tape the plastic to the box with clear, wide packing tape. These short whips are very accurate and if you carry your swing through you will get longer "stripes" Pass the plastic around.

For example, though there are strong ideas of good versus evil, cursing someone to cause their death might not be considered a malignant act. One practitioner explained it as follows:. On this matter Zora Hurston stated, "The way we tell it, hoodoo started way back there before everything. Six days of magic spells and mighty words and the world with its elements above and below was made.

By blending the ideas laid out by the Christian Bible, the faith is made more acceptable. This combines the teachings of Christianity that Africans brought to America were given and the traditional beliefs they brought with them. The newest work on Hoodoo lays out a model of Hoodoo origins and development. Those traits included naturopathic medicine, ancestor reverence, counter clockwise sacred circle dancing, blood sacrifice, divination, supernatural source of malady, water immersion and spirit possession.

These traits allowed Culturally diverse Africans to find common culturo-spiritual ground. According to the author, Hoodoo developed under the influence of the ARC, the African divinities moved back into their natural forces, unlike in the Caribbean and Latin America where the divinities moved into Catholic saints. This work also innovatively discusses the misunderstood High John the Conqueror root and myth as well as the incorrectly discusses "nature sack. Paralleling God-as-conjurer , hoodoo practitioners often understand the biblical figure Moses in similar terms.

Hurston developed this idea in her novel Moses, Man of the Mountain , in which she calls Moses, "the finest hoodoo man in the world. Moses conjures, or performs magic "miracles" such as turning his staff into a snake. However, his greatest feat of conjure was using his powers to help free the Hebrews from slavery. This emphasis on Moses-as-conjurer led to the introduction of the pseudonymous work the Sixth and Seventh Books of Moses into the corpus of hoodoo reference literature.

In hoodoo, "All hold that the Bible is the great conjure book in the world. This is particularly evident given the importance of the book Secrets of the Psalms in hoodoo culture.

The Bible, however, is not just a source of spiritual works but is itself a conjuring talisman. It can be taken "to the crossroads", carried for protection, or even left open at specific pages while facing specific directions. This informant provides an example of both uses:. The purpose of hoodoo was to allow people access to supernatural forces to improve their lives.

Hoodoo is purported to help people attain power or success "luck" in many areas of life including money, love, health, and employment. Contact with ancestors or other spirits of the dead is an important practice within the conjure tradition, and the recitation of Psalms from the Bible is also considered spiritually influential in hoodoo. Home-made powders, mojo hands, oils, and talismans form the basis of much rural hoodoo, but there are also some successful commercial companies selling various hoodoo products to urban and town practitioners.

These are generally called spiritual supplies, and they include herbs, roots, minerals, candles, incense, oils, floor washes, sachet powders, bath crystals, icons, aerosols, and colognes. Many patent medicines, cosmetics, and household cleaning supplies for mainstream consumers have been aimed also at hoodoo practitioners. Some products have dual usage as conventional and spiritual supplies, examples of which include the Four Thieves Vinegar , [19] Florida Water , [20] and Red Devil Lye.

Hoodoo is linked to a popular tradition of Bottle Trees in the United States. According to gardener and glass bottle researcher Felder Rushing, the use of bottle trees came to the Old South from Africa with the slave trade. Bottle trees were an African tradition, passed down from early Arabian traders. They believed that the bottles trapped the evil spirits until the rising morning sun could destroy them. The use of blue bottles is linked to the "haint blue" spirit specifically.

Today, glass bottle trees are a popular garden decoration throughout the South and Southwest. Over time, a few African Americans began to incorporate a few elements from the European culture, such as occultism and mysticism.

The mobility of black people from the rural South, to more urban areas in the North, is characterized by the items used in hoodoo.

Whites and especially Jewish pharmacists opened their shops in black communities and began to offer items both asked for by their black customers, as well as things they themselves felt would be of use.

Throughout the African American community one finds Christian symbolism and prayer, which made it a natural addition to the similar symbolism of hoodoo. Mirroring the hoodoo concept of the Bible-as-talisman , the book itself proposes to be a protective amulet: Though its authorship is attributed to Moses, the oldest manuscript dates to the midth century. Its importance in hoodoo among a few practititioners is summarized as follows:.

Hoodoo shows evident links to the practices and beliefs of Fon and Ewe spiritual folkways.

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The Romans came to Britain nearly years ago and changed our country. Even today, evidence of the Romans being here, can be seen in the ruins of Roman buildings, forts, roads, and baths can be found all over Britain. The Romans invaded other countries too. The Roman Empire covered much of .

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The Roman Soldier. Roman soldiers were very strong and tough, they had to march over 20 miles a day with heavy things to carry. They had to carry equipment such as tents, food, cooking pots and weapons as well as wearing all their armour.

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The Bronze Bow Questions and Answers - Discover the community of teachers, mentors and students just like you that can answer any question you might have on The Bronze Bow. “An approachable and study of Rome's most colorful and neglected emperor during a tumultuous era.” ―Philip Matyszak, author of Legionary: The Roman Soldier’s (Unofficial) Manual and Chronicle of the Roman Republic “If Maximinus had not been a real flesh and blood character, Hollywood would probably have invented him―a physically massive man who rose from shepherd to emperor of Rome.

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Tarquin the Proud was the last king in ancient Rome. He was not a good king. He was a tyrant and the people hated him. There is not a set tale of how the Romans actually got rid of him, but there is an important story that tells about their war with him. Louis XIV: Louis XIV, king of France (–) who ruled his country during one of its most brilliant periods and who remains the symbol of absolute monarchy of the classical age. He extended France’s eastern borders at the expense of the Habsburgs and secured the Spanish throne for his grandson.