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❶Preyer — , which was based on extensive physiological and psychological observations collected during the first three years of the life of his son.

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In this position, Burt tested children recommended for special or remedial schools and classes. He also developed mental and diagnostic tests. In The Backward Child , Burt argued that pupils who could not do the work of the grade they were supposed to be in on the basis of their age often suffered from environmental handicaps such as poverty, poor health, and inadequate housing.

Despite that, he also believed that the majority of these cases were irremediably backward as a result of the general inferiority of their intellectual capacity, which, according to him, was inborn, hereditary, and therefore unalterable. According to Burt, the existing class structure was justified because it was based on innate differences in intelligence.

Because he was convinced that intelligence did not improve because of education, he advocated the establishment of special educational tracks for children to match their innate general cognitive ability.

At the turn of the twentieth century, psychologists criticized the child-study movement for the lack of scientific rigor and inconclusive nature of its research and the lack of clarity in its basic objectives. Consequently, the movement lost its momentum. In particular, educational psychologists attempted to make research into child development scientifically respectable.

They aimed to provide teachers and educational administrators with the scientific tools to rationalize and improve educational practice. The Journal of Educational Psychology, which published their research, commenced publication in According to the psychologist Edward Lee Thorndike — , educational psychology could provide normative standards for the rational organization of educational practice.

Thorndike promoted the widespread application of intelligence and achievement tests to make the work of schools visible in a numerical way: In particular, educational administrators found this type of numerical information useful. Apart from developing psychometric tests, Thorndike presented the laws of learning as a rational foundation for educational practice, as behaviorist psychologists had formulated them.

His most influential and controversial contribution was his opinion that there was little or no transfer of training between learning in different areas. After all, if the mental discipline acquired through learning Latin had no ramifications for learning in other areas, it became very difficult to defend teaching the subject.

The use of mental tests in education was promoted by Lewis M. According to Terman, intelligence, often expressed in the form of the intelligence quotient, or IQ, was a relatively stable and inherited quality. To accommodate students with a wide variety of intellectual ability, he proposed that schools organize different educational tracks suitable for different levels of mental ability.

Similarly, Terman was convinced that modern society was essentially meritocratic in nature: In his view, differences in income and socioeconomic status are based on intelligence rather than on differences in educational opportunity or the effects of discrimination, exclusion, and deprivation. In the early s, research into child development was a modest endeavor. It occurred on a small scale at a number of universities and received small amounts of funding.

Researchers were engaged in research on different aspects of child health, child welfare, and educational research. In the Committee on Child Development was founded by the National Research Council to coordinate research activities.

According to Lawrence K. Relatively little was known about normal children and normal child development, knowledge of which he considered essential for guiding educational and child-rearing practices. Because the first years of life were essential for the formation of personality, Frank thought it essential that these would become the object of scientific research. Researchers often had associations with elementary schools and high schools to investigate child development in its later stages.

At several research centers, longitudinal research projects, in which individual children were followed for several decades to study their development, were undertaken.

Other studies involved observational studies of children and the measurement of individual differences in intelligence and ability. According to Frank, research in child development needed to be closely associated with the popularization of its results.

He insisted that every center for child research institutionalize programs for public education. One of the first institutions to receive funding was the Iowa Child Welfare Research Station, which had opened in Researchers there developed measurements of physical development and investigated the importance of nutrition. Several observational studies were undertaken in a laboratory nursery school and at an adoption agency. Researchers at Iowa concluded that the IQ of young children could be highly variable: These conclusions were repeated by Helen Thompson Woolley — of the Merrill-Palmer school in Detroit but were contested by other researchers, in particular Lewis Terman and Florence Goodenough — , who worked at the Institute for Child Welfare at the University of Minnesota.

According to Gesell, maturation and growth entailed the unfolding of inborn traits, which could be delayed by environmental deprivation. Gesell designed a number of normative scales measuring levels of mental and motor development in children.

At the University of Toronto, several longitudinal research projects investigating the social behavior of children were undertaken. At the Institute of Child Welfare at the University of California at Berkeley, a similar research project was initiated.

Researchers there also doubted the invariable nature of IQ scores in individuals. Exactly what I asked for Research Paper , Other. Research Paper , Public Relations. Essay , Human Rights.

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